The Swiss tennis icon, who reclaimed the world No 1 ranking after overcoming a serious knee injury and winning his 20th Grand Slam title at the Australian Open last month, fought off competition from Cristiano Ronaldo and Rafael Nadal to land the Sportsman of the Year award.
" This is a very special moment for me," Federer said. "Everyone knows how highly I value my Laureus Awards, so to win another would have been wonderful, but to win two is a truly unique honour. And so unexpected.
"I am delighted and I would like to thank the Laureus Academy for all their support. It was an unforgettable year for me, to come back after a very difficult 2016 and these Awards just make it even more memorable.
"When I won my first Laureus Award back in 2005, if you had said I would have ended up winning six I would not have believed you. It's been an amazing ride."
Serena Williams won the Sportswoman of the Year award, with Sergio Garcia claiming the Breakthrough award after his Masters success in April.
Other winners included football legend Francesco Totti, who claimed the Academy Exceptional Achievement Award for his services to Roma and Italy, and former track athlete Edwin Moses, who won the Lifetime Achievement award.
Swiss triple-world champion wheelchair racer Marcel Hug won the Disability award, while the Laureus Best Sporting Moment of the Year award went to Chapecoense, the Brazilian football club hit by an air disaster in 2016.
Elsewhere, Mercedes-AMG Petronas picked up the Team of the Year award for winning the Formula One constructor's Championship in 2017.